The field of negotiation and gender embodies over 35 years of research from various academic disciplines. On this page, the Council presents a small annotated collection of different perspectives on gender and negotiation.
Title: Determinants and Consequences of Salary Negotiations by Male and Female MBA Graduates Author(s): Gerhart, Barry; Rynes, Sara Published: 1991 Journal Name: Journal of Applied Psychology (1991), Vol. 76, No. 2, pp. 256–262 Document available online at: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/76/2/256/
A record 1,078 women have won theirprimaries for state legislative seats in the 2012 cycle so far, according to a new analysis by the 2012 Project, a nonpartisan undertaking of Rutgers' Center for American Women and Politics. Those results, however, are for just 23 states and represent fewer than half of the state legislative seats up for election. A total of 44 states have 6,012 state legislative seats up for grabs in the 2012 cycle.
"We could still increase the numbers serving, up from today's 23.7 percent," said Mary Hughes, director of the 2012 Project, on women in state legislatures. "I see widely varying possibilities among the states. California is down 10 women nominees from 2010. In states with early focused efforts to recruit women, such as Illinois, there appear to be good results for women candidates. Illinois has a record-breaking 75 women candidates, up 9 versus 2010."
Data collected from The National Law Journal's NLJ 250 survey, which ranks the largest firms in the United States by headcount, show that women represent 15.1 percent of equity partners. Among all partners — equity and nonequity — the figure is 18.8 percent.
We probed that question by compiling partnership data as part of The National Law Journal's NLJ 250 survey, which ranks the largest firms in the United States by headcount. Data collected from 221 firms show that women represent 15.1 percent of equity partners. Among all partners — equity and nonequity — the figure is 18.8 percent.
That's progress since 2003, when NLJ affiliate The American Lawyer compiled similar data, though the pace of change has been slow and tenuous. The overall percentage of women in equity and nonequity partner positions then was 16 percent. As for equity partners, the National Association of Women Lawyers said in a 2011 report that women have been "fixed" at 15 percent of the equity slots for the past 20 years.
At just five firms surveyed, women make up more than 25 percent of equity partners. These firms are Fragomen, Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy (42 percent female equity partners); Jackson Kelly (28.4 percent); Ice Miller (26.9 percent); Best Best & Krieger (26.7 percent); and Ford & Harrison (26.1 percent).
The ascent of Ms. Mayer and women like Meg Whitman at Hewlett-Packard, Virginia Rometty at I.B.M. and Sheryl Sandberg at Facebook contrasts sharply with the continuing misfortunes of many women on Wall Street.
In the spring, when JPMorgan Chase disclosed a $3 billion trading loss (which has since climbed to an estimated $5.8 billion), Ina R. Drew, the head of the bank’s chief investment office, became the first casualty. Ms. Drew resigned immediately and is now expected to lose the equivalent of two years’ compensation, an estimated $30 million, for her involvement in the fiasco.
Her departure followed unceremonious exits last year by female executives on Wall Street, where the scarcity of women in top positions has become a bitter symbol of the low status women hold in U.S. corporate life. JPMorgan Chase lost Heidi Miller, the former head of the bank’s international operations, and at Bank of America, Sallie Krawcheck, who ran the company’s wealth management division, also left. Zoe Cruz, another high-profile Wall Street executive and former co-head of Morgan Stanley, was ousted in 2007.
The figures tell an alarming story. Women make up more than half of the work force in the financial industry but are chief executives at fewer than 3 percent of U.S. financial companies, according to Catalyst, a New York-based global research and consulting nonprofit focused on women’s career advancement.
In 1983, Sally Ride became the first American woman in space. She blasted off aboard Challenger, culminating a long journey that started in 1977 when the Ph.D. candidate answered an ad seeking astronauts for NASA missions.
According to her official biography, by the time Ride decided to apply to become an astronaut, she had already received degrees in physics and English and was on her way to a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.
Japan's world champion women's football team took exception to flying economy while their male counterparts sat in business class on a flight to Europe for the Olympics. The Japan Football Association said the men flew in business because they are professionals.
The women's team was assigned seats in premium economy for the 13-hour flight to Paris while the nation's under-23 men's team was up front on the same flight.
"It should have been the other way around," 2011 FIFA women's world player of the year Homare Sawa told Japanese media after arriving in the French capital. "Even just in terms of age we are senior."
Basketball Australia says it will review its travel policy for national teams after complaints that the men flew business class to the Olympics while most of the women sat in premium economy.
The women's team is by far the most successful of the two, having won silver medals at the last three Olympics. The men, who will be led in London by San Antonio Spurs point guard Patty Mills, have never won an Olympic medal.
A study published in the journal Organization Science finds that when managers have to explain their pay-raise decisions to employees, they tend to give more money to men than they do to women -- even if the workers' performance is equal.
A new study in the journal Organization Science finds that when managers have to explain their pay-raise decisions to employees, they give more money to men than they do to women -- even if the workers' performance is equal.
In the study, originally done for Emory University, 184 managers were given a set amount of money that they needed to distribute among employees with identical skills and responsibilities. Half of the managers were told they would need to justify their decisions to their employees, and half were told there would be no discussion afterwards.
Unfortunately, women can't overcome an initially low raise by negotiating because the corporate budget has already been spent. In many companies, each manager receives a budget for raises that is then divided among employees. All workers are notified at the same time (or over a very short time period) of their increases. Because every penny has already been allotted, there is no money left to give to someone who questions a small raise. Managers won't typically go to an employee with a higher raise and say, "Oops! Jane needs a few more bucks, so we're taking a percent off your raise and giving it to her!"
The only way a raise can go through at this point is for an exception to be granted. And that requires a lot of hard work on the part of the manager and (most likely) the manager's manager. HR and senior management must be convinced that this additional raise, outside of the spent budget, is worth the money. And managers, who are cognizant of their own reputation, will try to do this without stating that they made a mistake in allocating raise money.
Issue brief from the Center for American Progress:
This issue brief examines the state of women of color in the United States at large in regards to four key areas: the workplace wage gap, health, educational attainment, and political leadership. While conversations in the mainstream media would suggest that women of color are a monolithic entity, it is important to note that women of color are a diverse group with a variety of experiences. We offer specific data points on various racial and ethnic groups where available as we present the issues of greatest importance to women of color today, but remember that data are not always available for direct comparisons of different groups of women of color compared to their white counterparts.