Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine and Engineering at Stanford University has developed 11 methods for integrating sex and gender analysis into research projects, and 14 case studies demonstrating the benefits of using them.
Since Schiebinger launched the Gendered Innovations project in the summer of 2009, the project has produced 14 case studies to demonstrate how applying sex and gender analysis to research studies has helped create new knowledge and technologies.
The project was initiated with start-up funding from Stanford's Michelle R. Clayman Institute for Gender Research. Schiebinger, a former director of the Clayman Institute, is the editor of the 2008 book, Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering.
All the project's peer-reviewed case studies can be found on its website, including:
Stem Cells: Analyzing Sex
Animal Research: Designing Health and Biomedical Research
De-Gendering the Knee: Overemphasizing Sex Differences as a Problem
Heart Disease in Women: Formulating Research Questions
Pregnant Crash Test Dummies: Rethinking Standards and Reference Models
Water: Participatory Research and Design
"The website is a resource for researchers," Schiebinger said. "It's globally accessible and freely available to anyone with an Internet connection.
An international cast of contributors
The Gendered Innovations project was developed through six international workshops. In 2011, the European Union joined the project, followed by the U.S. National Science Foundation in 2012.
"The project was created through a unique international collaboration of scientists, engineers and gender experts," Schiebinger said.
A record 1,078 women have won theirprimaries for state legislative seats in the 2012 cycle so far, according to a new analysis by the 2012 Project, a nonpartisan undertaking of Rutgers' Center for American Women and Politics. Those results, however, are for just 23 states and represent fewer than half of the state legislative seats up for election. A total of 44 states have 6,012 state legislative seats up for grabs in the 2012 cycle.
"We could still increase the numbers serving, up from today's 23.7 percent," said Mary Hughes, director of the 2012 Project, on women in state legislatures. "I see widely varying possibilities among the states. California is down 10 women nominees from 2010. In states with early focused efforts to recruit women, such as Illinois, there appear to be good results for women candidates. Illinois has a record-breaking 75 women candidates, up 9 versus 2010."
PROBLEM: Few would argue that the objectification of women is a real thing -- and a real problem -- but as yet there's been no cognitive explanation for it in a literal sense. Do we really look at women differently than we do men, and are they actually objectified in the eye -- and brain -- of the beholder?
METHODOLOGY: Images of average, fully clothed individuals (read: no supermodels in bikinis) were quickly flashed before the eyes of participants. After each one, the participants would then be shown two side-by-side images that zoomed in on one, "sexual" aspect of the individual (for example, a woman's midriff) and asked to identify the version that hadn't been modified. The experiment was also reversed, so that participants first looked at a specific part and then had to identify it in the context of an entire body. The test was designed to clue researchers in on whether the participants were using global or local cognitive processing while looking at the images -- in other words, whether they perceived the individuals as a whole or as an assemblage of their various parts.
Data collected from The National Law Journal's NLJ 250 survey, which ranks the largest firms in the United States by headcount, show that women represent 15.1 percent of equity partners. Among all partners — equity and nonequity — the figure is 18.8 percent.
We probed that question by compiling partnership data as part of The National Law Journal's NLJ 250 survey, which ranks the largest firms in the United States by headcount. Data collected from 221 firms show that women represent 15.1 percent of equity partners. Among all partners — equity and nonequity — the figure is 18.8 percent.
That's progress since 2003, when NLJ affiliate The American Lawyer compiled similar data, though the pace of change has been slow and tenuous. The overall percentage of women in equity and nonequity partner positions then was 16 percent. As for equity partners, the National Association of Women Lawyers said in a 2011 report that women have been "fixed" at 15 percent of the equity slots for the past 20 years.
At just five firms surveyed, women make up more than 25 percent of equity partners. These firms are Fragomen, Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy (42 percent female equity partners); Jackson Kelly (28.4 percent); Ice Miller (26.9 percent); Best Best & Krieger (26.7 percent); and Ford & Harrison (26.1 percent).
The ascent of Ms. Mayer and women like Meg Whitman at Hewlett-Packard, Virginia Rometty at I.B.M. and Sheryl Sandberg at Facebook contrasts sharply with the continuing misfortunes of many women on Wall Street.
In the spring, when JPMorgan Chase disclosed a $3 billion trading loss (which has since climbed to an estimated $5.8 billion), Ina R. Drew, the head of the bank’s chief investment office, became the first casualty. Ms. Drew resigned immediately and is now expected to lose the equivalent of two years’ compensation, an estimated $30 million, for her involvement in the fiasco.
Her departure followed unceremonious exits last year by female executives on Wall Street, where the scarcity of women in top positions has become a bitter symbol of the low status women hold in U.S. corporate life. JPMorgan Chase lost Heidi Miller, the former head of the bank’s international operations, and at Bank of America, Sallie Krawcheck, who ran the company’s wealth management division, also left. Zoe Cruz, another high-profile Wall Street executive and former co-head of Morgan Stanley, was ousted in 2007.
The figures tell an alarming story. Women make up more than half of the work force in the financial industry but are chief executives at fewer than 3 percent of U.S. financial companies, according to Catalyst, a New York-based global research and consulting nonprofit focused on women’s career advancement.
The ranks of America’s poor are on track to climb to levels unseen in nearly half a century, erasing gains from the war on poverty in the 1960s amid a weak economy and fraying government safety net.
Census figures for 2011 will be released this fall in the critical weeks ahead of the November elections.
The Associated Press surveyed more than a dozen economists, think tanks and academics, both nonpartisan and those with known liberal or conservative leanings, and found a broad consensus: The official poverty rate will rise from 15.1 percent in 2010, climbing as high as 15.7 percent. Several predicted a more modest gain, but even a 0.1 percentage point increase would put poverty at the highest level since 1965.
Poverty is spreading at record levels across many groups, from underemployed workers and suburban families to the poorest poor. More discouraged workers are giving up on the job market, leaving them vulnerable as unemployment aid begins to run out. Suburbs are seeing increases in poverty, including in such political battlegrounds as Colorado, Florida and Nevada, where voters are coping with a new norm of living hand to mouth.
In 1983, Sally Ride became the first American woman in space. She blasted off aboard Challenger, culminating a long journey that started in 1977 when the Ph.D. candidate answered an ad seeking astronauts for NASA missions.
According to her official biography, by the time Ride decided to apply to become an astronaut, she had already received degrees in physics and English and was on her way to a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.
The Arizona Republic reports that opponents of Arizona's controversial immigration law, Senate Bill 1070, are using dozens of e-mails sent by Russell Pearce over the past six years to allege that the law was racially motivated and that the former senator and sponsor of the legislation fabricated data to persuade the Legislature and Gov. Jan Brewer to support it.
The American Civil Liberties Union of Arizona acquired thousands of Pearce e-mails through a public-records request and included dozens of them in a legal motion to block a portion of the law.
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled last month in a lawsuit filed by the U.S. Department of Justice that the part of the law that requires law-enforcement officers to ask about a person's legal status in certain situations does not conflict with federal authority. Lower courts could issue a ruling on how and when that goes into effect as soon as today.
The e-mails from Pearce in the court documents include statements such as: "Can we maintain our social fabric as a nation with Spanish fighting English for dominance? ... It's like importing leper colonies and hope we don't catch leprosy. It's like importing thousands of Islamic jihadists and hope they adapt to the American Dream."
They also include unsupported statistics such as "9,000 people killed every year by illegal aliens," and "the illegal aliens in the United States have a crime rate that's two-and-a-half times that of non-illegal aliens."
It’s shaping up to be a record-breaking year for women running for office, reports National Journal’s Hotline (behind paywall).
According to figures collected by Rutgers's Center for American Women and Politics, fully 296 women filed to run for the House this year, shattering the previous record (262) set in 2010. And with primaries in 19 states still to come, plus a few runoffs, 113 women have already won their party's nomination and advanced to Nov.
The record for women nominees in one year is 141, set in 2004. That could fall, too; for one thing, there are still 11 more female incumbents with token primaries ahead. Already, almost as many Dem women have won nominations (85) as in 2004 (88), though the GOP is lagging a bit. Still, local or nat'l GOPers tapped women as their marquee candidates in a number of upcoming primaries, including MI-11 (Nancy Cassis, the local establishment's pick as a write-in nominee), MO-02 (Ann Wagner), and AZ-02 (Martha McSally), among others.
One other record to consider is the number of women serving in the House, which is 76. There are 75 currently serving and 6 aren't running for reelection, while another 9 could be considered in some degree of electoral peril. But not all will lose or be replaced by men, and both parties have female nominees poised to capture male-held seats, like GOPer Walorski (IN-02) and Dem Duckworth (IL-08), to name just two.
Japan's world champion women's football team took exception to flying economy while their male counterparts sat in business class on a flight to Europe for the Olympics. The Japan Football Association said the men flew in business because they are professionals.
The women's team was assigned seats in premium economy for the 13-hour flight to Paris while the nation's under-23 men's team was up front on the same flight.
"It should have been the other way around," 2011 FIFA women's world player of the year Homare Sawa told Japanese media after arriving in the French capital. "Even just in terms of age we are senior."
Basketball Australia says it will review its travel policy for national teams after complaints that the men flew business class to the Olympics while most of the women sat in premium economy.
The women's team is by far the most successful of the two, having won silver medals at the last three Olympics. The men, who will be led in London by San Antonio Spurs point guard Patty Mills, have never won an Olympic medal.